Electronica Genre Guide

"What are the electronic music genres? How many genres are there? What are sub-genres of dance music? What is dub-step? What does Drum and Bass sound like?"

The electronic music scene is filled with a plethora of genres and sub-genres. You can't go to any dance blog or specilaity web site without seeing a smattering of different terms describing a dj's sound. "Dance," "Club," "Dub Step," "Dark Wave," "IDM"-- maybe you've seen them everywhere, but you aren't sure what they mean. Look no further than the Electronica Genre Guide (EGG). A collaborative effort between multiple resources, the EGG is a quick glance featuring a wealth of information at your fingertips. Simply scroll down, use the search, or use the links to locate any genres or sub-genres you may have questions about. This is not the end-all, be-all for this information, but it certainly a starting point for novices and experts in the electronic music industry.

Main Genres (for quick reference):
Ambient
Breakbeat
Chiptune
Disco
Downtempo
Drum & Bass
Electroacoustica
Electronic Rock
Electro
Eurodance
Hard Dance
House
Industrial
Post-Disco
Progressive
Techno
Trance
UK Garage

Genre Guide

Focuses largely on the timbral characteristics of sounds, often organized or performed to evoke an "atmospheric," "visual," or "unobtrusive" quality.

Ambient House
Tracks in the ambient house genre typically feature four-on-the-floor beat patterns, synthesisers (sometimes known as synth pads), and vocal samples integrated in a style classed as atmospheric("atmospheric style").
Examples: Aphex Twins, Juno Reactor, System 7, The Orb

Dark Ambient
Subgenre of ambient music that features foreboding, ominous, or discordant overtones.
Examples: Death Cube K, Brian Eno, Ulver

Lounge
It is a type of mood music meant to evoke in the listeners the feeling of being in a place — a jungle, an island paradise, outer space, et cetera — other than where they are listening to it. The range of lounge music encompasses beautiful music-influenced instrumentals, modern electronica (with chillout, nu-jazz and downtempo influences), while remaining thematically focused on its retro-space-age cultural elements.
Examples: Jens Buchart, Weathertunes

Drone Music
Drone music is a minimalist musical style that emphasizes the use of sustained or repeated sounds, notes, or tone-clusters – called drones. It is typically characterized by lengthy audio programs with relatively slight harmonic variations throughout each piece compared to other musics. La Monte Young, one of its 1960s originators, defined it in 2000 as "the sustained tone branch of minimalism."
Examples: The Black Angels, Tony Conrad, Landing, Om, Tangerine Dream, Yellow Swans

Illbient
Though there are many individualistic variants of Illbient, the music is characterized by interesting dub-wise layering of soundscapes, hip hop-influenced use of samples and a progressive approach to beat programming that encompasses all genres of world groove and electronic music. Usually, but not always, illbient uses beats more than purely ambient music, and often illbient includes loops in the recordings.
Examples: DJ Spooky, Sub Dub, Techno Animal

Isolationism
A term coined by British musician Kevin Martin, used to describe a darker breed of ambient music that came to prominence in the mid-1990s. It had been described as "ambient's sinister, antisocial cousin."
Examples: GOD, Techno Animal

Lowercase
An extreme form of ambient minimalism in which very quiet sounds bookend long stretches of silence. Steve Roden, the founder of the movement, started it by recording himself handling paper in various distortions.
Examples: 12k, Atom, Raster-Noton, Steve Roden

Psybient
A genre of electronic music that combines elements of psychedelic trance, ambient, world music, new age and even ethereal wave. It often has many dub influences and can also sound somewhat like glitch. Psybient pieces are often structured around the concept of creating a "sonic voyage" or "musical journey." Although similar to psytrance's emphasis on maintaining non-stop rhythm throughout the night, psybient is far more focused on creating a vast soundscape that can be experienced over the length of an album, focusing less on beatmatching and allowing for a myriad of tempo changes.
Examples: Celtic Cross, Kick Bong, Pitch Black, Shpongle, Younger Brother



A term used to describe a collection of sub-genres of electronic music, usually characterized by the use of a non-straightened 4/4 drum pattern (as opposed to the steady beat of house). These rhythms may be characterised by their intensive use of syncopation and polyrhythms.

Acid Breaks
The fusion between breakbeat, acid, acid techno and other forms of Electronic dance music (EDM). Its drum line usually mimics most breakbeat music, lacking the distinctive kick drum of other forms of EDM.
Examples: Zak Baney

Baltimore Club
Baltimore club is based on an 8/4 beat structure, and includes tempos around 130 beats per minute. It combines repetitive, looped vocal snippets similar to ghetto house and ghettotech. These samples are often culled from television shows such as Sanford and Son and SpongeBob SquarePants, though can also be simple repeated calls and chants. The instrumental tracks include heavy breakbeats and call and response stanzas similar to those found in the go-go music of Washington, D.C.
Examples: DJ Equalizer, Kenny B, Scottie B, Shawn Caesar

Big Beat
Big Beat tends to feature distorted, compressed breakbeats at moderate tempos (usually between 120 to 140 beats per minute), acid house style synthesizer lines and heavy loops from 60s and 70s funk, jazz, rock and pop songs. They are often punctuated with punk-style vocals and driven by intense, distorted basslines with conventional pop and techno song structures. Big beat tracks have a sound that include: crescendos, builds, drops, dramatic sound effects such as explosions or sirens and extended drum rolls. As with several other dance genres at the time the use of effects such as cut-off, phasing and flanging was commonplace.
Examples: Fatboy Slim, The Crystal Method, The Chemical Brothers, The Prodigy, The Propellerheads

Breakbeat Hardcore
A derivative of the acid house and techno of the late 1980s and early 1990s that combines 4-to-the-floor rhythms with breakbeats, and is associated with the UK rave scene.
Examples: Lords of Acid, Nookie, Shut Up and Dance

Broken Beat
An electronic music genre that can be characterized by syncopated rhythm typically in 4/4 meter, with staggered or punctuated snare beats and/or hand claps.
Examples: Bugz in the Attic, Domu, IG Culture, Zed Bias

Florida Breaks
A genre of breakbeat music which, as the name suggests, is most popular in the areas around the US state of Florida but is recognized as a unique sound around the world. Florida breaks became popular in the club culture of the southeast United States during the mid and late 90s. Its sound at that time was described as 'funky' and often included recognizable samples from 80s pop, funk, and hip hop. Its current sound has a lot in common with nu skool breaks although it is also influenced by other music popular in the same area such as freestyle, electro and Miami bass.
Examples: DJ Icey, Baby Anne, Sharez, Jackal & Hyde

Hip Hop
An American musical genre that developed as part of hip hop culture, which is defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching, breaking/dancing and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling (or synthesis), and beatboxing. The term rap music is often used synonymously with the term hip hop music, but rap vocals are not required for music to be considered "hip hop.
Examples: Jay-z, Montell Jordan, B.O.B., etc.


Nu Skool Breaks
The sub-genre is usually characterized by its darker and heavier bass lines that are normally dominant throughout the track. Typically, tracks range between 125 to 140 bpm.
Examples: Plump DJs, Stanton Warriors, NAPT, Aquasky


4-Beat
Typical characteristics for 4-beat are for compositions to be around a tempo of 150 to 170 BPM (beats per minute). At the core of these compositions would be a fast looped, sometimes complex rolling sampled breakbeat, along with a combined bass drum every four beats to the bar - hence the name of 4-beat.
Examples: DJ Brisk, DJ Fade, DJ Pooch, Slipmatt, Wishdokta




Is synthesized electronic music often produced with the sound chips of old computers and video game consoles, as well as with other methods such as emulation.

Bitpop
A type of electronic music and also subgenre of Chiptune, where at least part of the music is made using old 8-bit computers and video game consoles. Among systems used are Commodore 64, Amiga, Atari 8-bit Home Computer, Game Boy, Atari 2600 and Nintendo Entertainment System. The sounds produced from these systems can be combined to any degree with traditional instruments such as guitar and drums, modern synthesizers and drum machines or vocals and sounds effects. Some artists use software-based emulators or virtual synthesizers to recreate the sounds of 8-bit systems.
Examples: YMCK, 8 Bit Weapon, Firebrand Boy, 8 Bit Betty, 8 Bit Mayhem, Pluxus


Game Boy Music
A type of chip music produced using a portable gaming console of the Game Boy line. To produce music of the genre, one needs a Game Boy and a cartridge containing appropriate tracking software, such as LSDJ.
Examples: 8 Bit Weapon, Nullsleep, PDF Format, Trash80, Unicorn Kid, Wet Mango

Nintendocore
A music genre that fuses elements of modern rock with 8-bit music, chiptunes, and video game music.Nintendocore emerged from hardcore punk, post-hardcore, and metalcore, and has been influenced by a variety of other genres, including electro, noise rock, post-rock, and screamo.
Examples: Horse the Band, Crystal Castles, The Octopus Project, Math the Band


Video Game Music
Any of the musical pieces or soundtracks and background musics found in video games.
Examples: Every video game has some form of this.


Yorkshire Bleeps and Bass
The sound was characterised by harsh, funky minimalism, speaker-breaking sub-bass and electronic bleeps or other futuristic sounds. Unlike the present-day English techno scene, this early Yorkshire movement was inner-city, multi-racial and aggressive, and went on to influence groundbreaking London breakbeat acts such as Shut Up and Dance and The Scientist and later jungle, which upon listening today it shares many similarities.
Examples: Bradford, Leeds



The disco sound has soaring, often reverberated vocals over a steady "four-on-the-floor" beat, an eighth note (quaver) or 16th note (semi-quaver) hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, and a prominent, syncopated electric bass line sometimes consisting of octaves. The Fender Jazz Bass is often associated with disco bass lines, because the instrument itself has a very prominent 'voice' in the musical mix. In most disco tracks, strings, horns, electric pianos, and electric guitars create a lush background sound. Orchestral instruments such as the flute are often used for solo melodies, and unlike in rock, lead guitar is rarely used.

Cosmic Disco
Various forms of synthesizer-heavy and/or African-influenced dance music and methods of DJing that were originally developed and promoted by a small number of DJs in certain discothèques of Northern Italy from the late 1970s through the mid-1980s. The music genre and mixing style shares some history with Italo disco.
Examples: Spranga, Peri, Meo, Fary

Euro Disco
An all encompassing colloquial term used to describe a variety of European electronic dance music that first originated from disco in the 1970s; incorporating elements of pop, New Wave and rock into disco-like continuous dance atmosphere. Many eurodisco compositions feature lyrics sung in English, although the singers often share a different mother tongue.
Examples: A-Ha, Billy Ocean, Creative Connection, Culture Club, Dead or Alive, Paul Hardcastle, Rick Astley, Wham!

Hardcore Breaks
A genre of electronic music written in the style of old skool rave music or breakbeat hardcore using modern technology. The music is composed of from looped, edited and processed breakbeat samples, intense bassline sounds, melodic piano lines, staccato synthesizer riffs, and various vocal samples (frequently taken from old house records).

Hi-NRG
A high-tempo disco music (often with electronic instrumentation): The genre possesses higher tempo (unusual for disco) and bold, simplistically electronic sound reminiscent of early synth rock, at the same time sharing dance track composition with scarce lyrics overposed to analogue 4-to-4 drum beats.
Examples: The Ting Tings, Hyper Crush, La Roux, Hazell Dean, Dead or Alive

New Beat
A term that was used in the 1980s to refer to two different genres of electronic dance music. It also refers to an underground 1980s Belgian music style.
Examples: Bizz Nizz, Lords of Acid, LA Style, Neon

Space Disco
Is a short-lived subgenre of eurodisco music that first became prominent in the European disco scene around 1976–77, before considerably declining in popularity and morphing into an Eastern European cult movement by the early-1980s. Space disco was inspired by both disco music and notable work of sci-fi film directors such as George Lucas (the Star Wars saga), Andrei Tarkovsky (Solaris) and Steven Spielberg (Close Encounters of the Third Kind).
Examples: Meco's Disco remix of Star Wars Theme, Cerrone's "Supernature", Sarah Brightman's "I Lost My Heart to a Starship Trooper"

Euro Beat
A music genre from Europe. It is a sub-genre of 80s italo disco (a.k.a. 80s eurodisco). In the USA, it was sometimes marketed as Hi-NRG and for a short while shared this term with the very early freestyle music hits.
Examples: Niko, Dr. Love, Jager, Momo, Go 2, Ace, Lisa Lion

Europop
A style of pop music that first developed in today's form in Europe, throughout the late 1970s. Europop topped the charts throughout the 1980s and ’90s. Some Europop stars came from France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Netherlands and United Kingdom; but most were Swedish in origin.
Examples: ABBA, Spice Girls, Roxette, Ace of Base, Aqua, DJ Bobo

Hard NRG
An electronic music genre similar in structure (with regards to sequencing & programming) to UK hard house. The main difference is in the musical/thematic content of each style. Where UK Hard House has uplifting, playfully fun and tough elements, NRG is ominous, dark, aggressive and relentless with its distressed, menacing and gritty sounds on a slightly faster BPM (155 - 165 average) than UK Hard House (150 - 155 average).
Examples: Commander Tom, DJ Misjah

Italo Disco
Encompasses much of the dance music output in Europe during the 1980s. It is one of the world's first forms of mostly electronic dance music and evolved during the late 1970s and early 1980s in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and other parts of Europe. Italo disco's futuristic, spacey sound was effected by synthesizers, drum machines and vocoders.
Examples: Annie, Little Boots, Glass Candy, The Chromatics, Pagan Gold, Unkle

Nu-Disco
A 21st century dance music genre associated with a renewed interest in 1970s and early 1980s disco, mid-1980s Italo disco, and the synthesizer-heavy Eurodisco aesthetics. The moniker appeared in print as early as 2002, and by mid-2008 was used by record shops such as the online retailers Juno and Beatport.
Examples: Aeroplane, Lindstrom, Tensnake, Todd Terje, Prins Thomas



A laid-back electronic music style similar to ambient music, but usually with a beat or groove unlike the beatless forms of Ambient music. The beat is sometimes made from loops that have a hypnotic feeling. Sometimes the beats are more complicated and more featured instead of being in the background, but even then they are usually less intense than other kinds of electronic music like Trance. Often the name chill-out music is used to refer to songs demonstrative of the genre, but those names also refer to other styles of music, and downtempo encompasses a wider variety of styles than those terms alone would indicate. Another related genre is trip hop, though downtempo usually uses a slower tempo than trip hop. Due to the relaxing and often sensual or romantic feel of most downtempo music, it is a popular form of background music in 'chill out rooms' of dance parties, and many alternative cafes.

Acid Jazz
A musical genre that combines elements of jazz, funk and hip-hop, particularly looped beats. It developed in the UK over the 1980s and 1990s and could be seen as tacking the sound of jazz-funk onto electronic dance. While acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition (sometimes including sampling or live DJ cutting and scratching), it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance.
Examples: Jamiroquai, Galliano, Urban Species, The Brand New Heavies, Los Amigos Invisibles, Incognito

Balearic Beat
Balearic beat records variate between house or Italo house and deep house influenced sounds and a slower R&B-influenced (under 119bpm) beat consisting of bass drum, snare, and hi-hats (often produced with a Roland TR-909 drum machine) programmed in certain laid-back, swing-beat patterns; plus soul, Latin, African, funk, and dub affectations; and production techniques borrowed from other styles of dance music that were popular at the time. Vocals were sometimes present, but much of the music was instrumental. The sounds of acoustic instruments such as guitar and piano were sometimes incorporated into Balearic Beat.
Examples: Paul Oakenfold, Danny Rampling

Chill Out
The genres associated with chill-out are mostly ambient, trip-hop, nu jazz, ambient house, New Age and other sub-genres of downtempo. Sometimes the easy listening sub-genre lounge is considered to belong to the chill-out collection as well. Chill out as a musical genre or descriptive is synonymous with the more recently popularized terms "smooth electronica" and "soft techno" and is a loose genre of music blurring into several other very distinct styles of electronic and lo-fi music.
Examples: Ryan Farish, José Padilla, Chris Coco, Pete Lawrence, Alex Paterson, Mixmaster Morris

Dub Music
A genre of music which grew out of reggae music in the 1960s, and is commonly considered a subgenre, though it has developed to extend beyond the scope of reggae. Music in this genre consists predominantly of instrumental remixes of existing recordings and is achieved by significantly manipulating and reshaping the recordings, usually by removing the vocals from an existing music piece, emphasizing the drum and bass parts (this stripped down track is sometimes referred to as a 'riddim'). Other techniques include dynamically adding extensive echo, reverb, panoramic delay, and occasional dubbing of vocal or instrumental snippets from the original version or other works. Dub also sometimes features electronically generated sound effects, or the use of distinctive instruments such as the melodica by artists such as Augustus Pablo.
Examples: UB40, The Dirty Heads, Ragana, Panda Bear, Fat Freddy's Drop, De Facto, Audio Active

Dubtronica
Consists of electronic beats played in a downbeat manner. It is much lower in speed than techno and generally warmer than dance-oriented electronica. The genre is repetitive but rewards careful listener attention. Some tracks use reggae toasters or singers to produce a more accessible form of the music.
Examples: Pole, Magnectic Man

Ethnic Electronica
A genre that combines elements of Electronic and World Music and was developed in the 1990s.
Examples: Praise, Enigma, Deep Forest, Ivan Kupala, Agricantus

Moombahton
Moombahton is Dutch electro-house music, which has been slowed down in tempo and mixed with Reggaeton to create an off-the-walls unique sound. The original Moombahton tracks feature not only the standard moombahton 108 BPMs but also 1.) chopped vocals, 2.) layered acapellas, 3.) extended and enhanced build-ups, as well as the introduction of 4.) new drums and percussion elements. These signature characteristics of the genre are known as the "5 elements of classic moombahton."
Examples: Dave Nada, DJ Sabo, DJ Melo, Munchi, Uncle Jesse, David Heartbreak, A-Mac, Dillon Francis, Diplo, Neki Stranac, Sazon Booya, JWLS, Max le Daron

New Age Music
Music of various styles intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, and reading as a method of stress management or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is often associated with environmentalism and New Age spirituality
Examples: Enigma, Enya, Lisa Gerrard, Gandalf, Moya Brennan, Nightnoise,Vangelis

Nu Jazz
Typically ventures farther into the electronic territory than does its close cousin, acid jazz (or groove jazz), which is generally closer to earthier funk, soul, and rhythm and blues, although releases from noted groove & smooth jazz artists such as the Groove Collective, and Pamela Williams blur the distinction between the styles. Nu jazz can be very experimental in nature and can vary widely in sound and concept. The sound, unlike its cousin Acid Jazz, departs from its blues roots and instead explores electronic sounds and ethereal jazz sensualities. Nu Jazz “is the music itself and not the individual dexterity of the musicians.”
Examples: The Cinematic Orchestra, Funki Porcini, The Herbaliser, Jaga Jazzist, Pest, Skalpel, Up, Bustle and Out.

Trip Hop
A genre whose musical aesthetics include a bass-heavy drumbeat, often emulating the slowed breakbeat samples typical of hip hop in the 1990s. Vocals in trip hop are often female and feature characteristics of various singing styles including R&B, jazz and rock. The female-dominant vocals of trip hop may be partially attributable to the influence of genres such as jazz and early R&B in which female vocalists were more common.
Examples: Morcheeba, Sneaker Pimps, Alpha, Mudville, Cibo Matto



The genre is characterized by fast breakbeats (typically between 160–190 bpm, occasional variation is noted in older compositions), with heavy bass and sub-bass lines. Drum and bass began as an offshoot of the United Kingdom rave scene of the very early 1990s. Over the first decade of its existence, the incorporation of elements from various musical genres led to many permutations in its overall style.

Clownstep
Typically clown step has a 'screech' bassline that is sometimes modified by LFO to produce a "wobble" sound, simple beat structure and/or a large amount of swingbeats. However as well as denoting a drum and bass subgenre it can also be used to describe any drum and bass artist that falls out of favour and the overlap between these terms might mean that the clownstep subgenre defies definition.

Darkcore
Characterized by layered breakbeats at around 150 to 160 bpm combined with very low frequency bass lines. In addition to these basic traits, dark themed samples such as horror movie theme music or cries for help were commonly included. As the style evolved, the almost gratuitous use of horror elements was dropped as producers relied more on simple effects such as reverb, delay, pitch shifting and time stretching to create a chaotic and sinister mood.
Examples: Goldie, 4 Hero, Q Project

Darkstep
Genre that fuses elements of darkcore with uptempo breakbeats and ambient noises (similar to those characteristic of neurofunk). Darkstep music is typically composed in a chromatic scale. The amen break, the firefight break, and other breakbeat samples feature prominently.
Examples: Black Sun Empire, Calyx, Concord Dawn, Counterstrike, DJ Hidden, Donny, Edgey

Hardstep
A subgenre of darkcore which emerged in 1994. It is characterised by a gritty production style, that has an inner-city feel to it. The breaks are less cut-up sounding than oldschool jungle, and harder, hence the name hardstep. Techstep is hardstep's most popular subgenre.
Examples: DJ Hype, DJ Zinc

Jump-Up
It is usually characterized by basslines that have a filter shaping LFO on them which gives the bass a ‘wobble’ sound accompanied by uptempo drum loops. Most frequently in modern Jump-Up, an element of highly energetic ‘stabs’ are often heard. Jump-Up is closely related to the more popular 1996–1997 era of jungle-drum and bass, known for its 'warmth’ through beat and melody syncopation and simpler heavy basslines (as opposed to the lighter, more distorted basslines of the precise-sounding techier styles of Neurofunk & Techstep coming out around this time).
Examples: Ego Trippin, Erb N Dub, Exa, Generic, Harvest, Heist, Heavy Hittahz, High Roller Hoogs, Iron Hands

Liquid Funk
While it uses similar basslines and bar layouts to other styles, it contains fewer bar-oriented samples and more instrumental layers (both synthesized and natural), harmonies, and ambience, producing a calmer atmosphere directed at both home listeners and nightclub audiences.
Examples: London Elektricity, LTJ Bukem, Makoto, Melo, Mistabishi, Moleman, Mutt, Netsky

Neurofunk
Juxtaposed elements of heavier and harder forms of funk with multiple influences ranging from techno, house and jazz, distinguished by consecutive stabs over the bassline and razor-sharp backbeats. Stylistic shifts in techstep - back beats replacing breakbeats, funk harmonies replacing industrial timbres and lack of emphasis on the drop.
Examples: Gridlok, Corrupt Souls, Noisia, Phace, The Upbeats

Oldschool Jungle
Today the term "jungle" is mostly used as a synonym for drum and bass. The fast tempos (150 to 170 bpm) breakbeats, other heavily syncopated percussive loops, samples and synthesized effects makes up the easily recognizable form of jungle. Producers create the drum patterns featured; sometimes completely off-beat, by cutting apart breakbeats most notably the Amen break. Long, computer generated pitch shifted snare rolls are common in oldschool jungle.
Examples: Ed Rush, Foul Play, Grooverider, Krome & Time, LTJ Bukem, Marvelous Cain, Micky Finn

Raggacore
A type of breakcore that is highly influenced by ragga jungle, a style of music that somewhat predates breakcore, characterized by ragga and dancehall rhythms and vocals. Its roots can arguably be traced back to jungle producer Remarc, who was one of the first producers to mix ragga and dancehall vocals with chaotic and intricately rearranged break beats.
Examples: Aaron Spectre, Bong-Ra, Cardopusher, Enduser, FFF, Shitmat, Venetian Snares, Stivs from the Life4Land crew

Sambass
A regional sub-genre of drum and bass music mostly native to Brazil, which combines drum and bass rhythms with influences from Latin American music.
Examples: DJ Marky, DJ Patife, XRS Land, Drumagick, Bungle, DJ Roots


Techstep
Characterized by a dark, sci-fi mood, near-exclusive use of synthesised or sampled sound sources, influences from industrial and techno music, and what some writers have described as a "clinical" sound. Although described as having a "techy" feel, techstep's relationship with techno should not be overstated. It shares the technique of creating a high-energy collage from abstract, synthetic noises, including samples, bleeps and squelches: it rarely uses instruments that have not been processed by effects. Similarly, quantized drum-machine kit and percussion sounds are favored over naturalistic human breakbeats. However, it usually adheres to drum and bass norms in other regards, especially in terms of musical structure, with the emphasis on the "drop". Techstep saw jungle music's obsession with bass change from aiming for low and deep to exploring timbre, artists aiming to outdo each other with ever more distorted and "twisted" bass sounds.
Examples: Noisia, Spor, Phace, Apex,  Black Sun Empire


Trancestep
It is characterized by deliberately crossing borders between Techno and Drum and Bass, whilst submerging other influences such as techstep, neurofunk and sometimes hardtechno.
Examples: The Sect, Propaganda, Ruin, Proket, Cooh

Skullstep
Follows the instrumentation of techstep, it is characterized by a much more repetitive, aggressive song structure with similarities to Breakcore - the original Skullstep drumloop, pioneered by Limewax, got looped at a dotted quarter beat length. This allows the drumloop to remain syncopated, but achieve a repetitive sound resemblant to hardcore techno.
Examples: Current Value, Donny, Dylan, Limewax, Gein, SNM, The Panacea, Axis & Trank



Electro (short for either electro-funk or electro-boogie) is a genre of electronic dance music directly influenced by the use of TR-808 drum machines, Moog keytar synthesizers and funk sampling. Records in the genre typically feature drum machines and heavy electronic sounding deprived of vocals in general, although if present, they are delivered in a deadpan manner, often through an electronic distortion such as vocoding. This is the main distinction of electro from previously prominent late-1970s genres such as disco and boogie, in which electronic sound was only part of the instrumentation rather than basis of the whole song.

Crunk
An archetypal crunk track most frequently uses a drum machine rhythm, heavy bassline, and shouting vocals, often in call and response manner. The term crunk is also used as a blanket term to denote any style of southern hip hop, a side effect of the genre's breakthrough to the mainstream. Looped, stripped-down drum machine rhythms are usually used. The Roland TR-808 and 909 are among the most popular. The drum machines are usually accompanied by simple, repeated synthesizer melodies and heavy bass stabs. The tempo of the music is somewhat slower than hip hop, around the speed of reggaeton. The focal point of crunk is more often the beats and music than the lyrics therein. Crunk rappers, however, often shout and scream their lyrics, creating a heavy, aggressive style of hip hop. These lyrics can often be isolated to simple chants ("Where you from?" and "You can't f*ck with me" are common examples). While other subgenres of hip hop address sociopolitical or personal concerns, crunk is almost exclusively party music, favoring call and response slogans in lieu of more substantive approaches.
Examples: Ying Yang Twins, Lil Jon, Soulja Boy, T-Pain

Electro Backbeat
A term used to describe a diversion from the collection of sub-genres of electronic music, usually characterized by the use of a 4/4 drum pattern. This pattern is accompanied by a loud bass, with synthesizers and various other instruments supplying the ambient effect of a composition. These rhythms may be characterized by their use of syncopation and polyrhythms. In recent times, the term electro backbeat has grown more integrated with the many genres of breaks music which have become popular within the global dance music scene, including nu skool breaks and progressive breaks.
Examples: Commanderbass

Electro-Grime
A typified but complex 2-step breakbeats, generally around 140 beats per minute and constructed from "different" sounds. Stylistically, grime draws on many genres including UK Garage, dancehall, and Dubstep hip hop. The lyrics and music combine futuristic electronic elements and dark, guttural bass lines.
Examples: Dizzee Rascal, Chase & Status, Toddla T, Tinchy Strider, Foreign Beggers, Lady Sovereign

Electro Hop
Is the fusion of electro, electroclash, electropop, electronica, or electronic dance music with hip hop. The music usually has dancing in mind, however some forms of the music are electronica. Electro hop music typically features harsher synthesizer sounds than other styles of hip hop, often utilizing heavily distorted lead and bass sounds, as well as "bleep"-ing square leads and abrasive digital brass effects. Drum sequencing is typically more minimal than other genres, and frequently has characteristic segments where the kick drum stops or is shortened and a march-style snare pattern prevails for 2 or more bars before returning to a typical kick drum-dominated hip hop beat.
Examples: Egyptian Lover, LA Dream Team, World Class Wreckin Cru, The Unknown DJ

Electropop
(Or Synthpop) A genre of popular music in which the synthesizer is the dominant musical instrument. Although synthpop in part arose from punk rock it abandoned punk's emphasis on authenticity and often pursued a deliberate artificiality, sometimes using synthesizers to replace all other instruments. It owed relatively little to the foundations in early popular music in jazz, folk music or the blues, and instead of looking to American influences, in its early stages, it consciously focused on European and particularly Eastern European influences.
Examples: Owl City, Duran Duran, La Roux, The Killers, Cut Copy, Ladytron, Lady Gaga, Little Boots, Frankmusik, Hurts, The Postal Service




Is a broad term referring to music resulting from the manipulation of recorded or generated sound, emanating from loudspeakers, without an obvious human performer.

Berlin School
A relatively self-contained style that has not had nearly the impact on music in general that Kraftwerk has had on synth pop and techno, but ambient, electronica, New Age, and trance are partially rooted in Berlin School. The genre is sometimes considered a sub-branch of New Age or ambient, though it predates the widespread usage of both terms.
Examples: Alpha Wave Movement, Dweller at the Threshold, Jeffrey Koepper, Craig Padilla

Electronic Dance
Is electronic music that is produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment. As such, the related term club music, while broadly referring to whichever music genres are currently in vogue and associated with nightclubs, has become synonymous with all electronic dance music, or just those genres—or some subset thereof—that are typically played at mainstream discothèques. It is sometimes used more broadly to encompass non-electronic music played at such venues, or electronic music that is not normally played at clubs but that shares attributes with music that is. Similarly, electronic dance music sometimes means different things to different people. Both terms vaguely encompass multiple genres, and sometimes are used as if they were genres themselves. The distinction is that club music is ultimately based on what's popular, whereas electronic dance music is based on attributes of the music itself.
Examples: Paul van Dyk, Tijs Verwest (aka Tiësto), Deadmau5, Paul Oakenfold, ATB, Showtek, John Digweed, Sasha, David Guetta, Armin van Buuren, Ferry Corsten

Folktronica
A genre of music comprising various elements of folk music and electronica, often featuring samplings of acoustic instruments—especially stringed instruments—and incorporating hip hop rhythms. Computers used during the recording process. A similar genre is "Laptop folk", which refers to a slightly more minimalistic electronic folk.
Examples: Yann Tiersen, Ellie Goulding, Four Tet, Bat for Lashes, Empire of the Sun, Little Dragon, Goldfrapp

Freestyle Music
 (Or Latin Hip-hop) A genre with rather clear features: a dance tempo with stress on beats two and four; syncopation with a bass line, lead synth, or percussion, with optional stabs (provided as synthesized brass or orchestral samples); sixteenth-note hi-hats; a chord progression that lasts eight, 16, or 32 beats and is usually in a minor key; and relatively complex, upbeat melodies with singing, verses, and a chorus, with themes about love or dancing. Freestyle music in general is heavily influenced by Latin music, especially with respect to rhythms and brass-horn and keyboard parts. The Latin clave rhythm can be felt in many songs (such as in the defining “Clave Rocks” by Amoretto). The tempo of freestyle music is almost always between 110 and 130 beats per minute (BPM), typically around 118 BPM. The keyboard parts are often elegant and clever, with many short melodies and countermelodies, again a strong influence from Latin music. It also features complicated drum-machine patterns that a human drummer would have extreme difficulty playing.
Examples: Stevie B, Shannon, Cynthia, Collage, Johnny O, Safire, George Lamond, Lil Suzy, Judy Torres, Information Society, Exposé, Lisa Lisa and Cult Jam

IDM
(Stands for 'Intelligent Dance Music') The genre is influenced by a wide range of musical styles particularly electronic dance music (EDM) such as Detroit Techno. Stylistically, IDM tends to rely upon individualistic experimentation rather than on a particular set of musical characteristics.

Glitch
A term used to describe a genre of electronic music that emerged in the mid to late 1990s. The glitch aesthetic is characterized by a deliberate use of glitch based sonic artifacts that would normally be viewed as unwanted disturbances reducing the overall sound quality and are thus usually to be avoided in audio recordings. Sources of glitch sound material are usually malfunctioning or abused audio recording devices or digital technology, such as CD skipping, electric hum, digital or analog distortion, bit rate reduction, hardware noise, computer bugs, crashes, vinyl record hiss or scratches and system errors
Examples: Alva Noto, Frank Bretschneider, Kim Cascone, Oval, Ryoji Ikeda, Tom Furgas


J-Pop
Abbreviation for Japanese Pop Music-- J-pop is an integral part of Japanese popular culture, being found in anime, commercials, movies, TV shows, and video games and other forms of Japanese entertainment. Some television news programs even run a J-pop song during their end credits. In anime and television shows, particularly dramas, opening and closing songs are changed up to four times per year. Because most programs have a combination of both opening and closing songs, it is possible for one show to use eight tracks for a single season.
Examples: B'z, Mr. Children, Ayumi Hamasaki, Southern All Stars, Dreams Come True, Utada Hikaru

Laptronica
A form of live electronic music in which laptops are used as musical instruments.Many sophisticated forms of sound production, manipulation and organization (which had hitherto only been available in studios or academic institutions) became available to use in live performance, largely by younger musicians influenced by and interested in developing experimental popular music forms.

Skweee
A musical style, with origin in Sweden and Finland. Skweee combines simple synth leads and basslines with funk, r'n'b or soul-like rhythms, overall rendering a stripped-down funky sound. The tracks are mostly entirely instrumental, though there are exceptions. The name Skweee was coined by Daniel Savio, one of the originators of the emerging sound. The name refers to the use of vintage synthesizers in the production process, where the aim is to "squeeze out" the most interesting sounds possible.
Examples: Zomby, Rusko, Joker

Sound Art
Is a diverse group of art practices that considers wide notions of sound, listening and hearing as its predominant focus. There are often distinct relationships forged between the visual and aural domains of art and perception by sound artists. Like many genres of contemporary art, sound art is interdisciplinary in nature, or takes on hybrid forms. Sound art often engages with the subjects of acoustics, psychoacoustics, electronics, noise music, audio media and technology (both analog and digital), found or environmental sound, explorations of the human body, sculpture, film or video and an ever-expanding set of subjects that are part of the current discourse of contemporary art.
Examples: Stan Shaff, Severed Heads, Don Simmons, Elliott Sharp, Michael Snow, Soundlab, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Rod Summers, Takis


Synthcore
(or Electronicore) Post-hardcore aritsts who have combined their music with electronic music, creating what has been called electronicore or synthcore. These groups make use of metalcore-influenced breakdowns, synthesizers, electronically produced sounds, auto-tuned vocals, and screamed vocals.
Examples: Attack! Attack!, Breathe Carolina, And There Were None, Abandon All Ships, Asking Alexandria, Sky Eats Airplane



Also commonly referred to as electro rock or digital rock, is rock music generated with electronic instruments. It has been highly dependent on technological developments, particularly the invention and refinement of the synthesizer, the development of the MIDI digital format and computer technology.


Alternative Dance
Alternative dance mixes the melodic song structure of alternative and indie rock with the electronic beats, synths and/or samples, and club orientation of post-disco dance music. As computer technology and music software became more accessible and advanced at the start of the 21st century, bands tended to forego traditional studio production practices. High quality music was often conceived using little more than a single laptop computer. Such advances led to an increase in the amount of home-produced electronic music, including alternative dance, available via the Internet.
Examples: Ladytron, Fischerspooner, The Sounds, New Order

Dance Punk
Is a music genre that emerged in the late 1970s, and is closely associated with the post-punk and No Wave movements. Combines elements of dance with punk.
Examples: LCD Soundsystem, Clinic, Death From Above 1979, Liars, The Rapture, Radio 4

Dance Rock
1980s and 1990s music practised by rock musicians, influenced by Philly soul, disco, and funk, fusing those styles with rock and dance.
Examples: Garbage, No Doubt, Robbie Williams, Scissor Sisters, Franz Ferdinand, The Killers

Dark Wave
Coinciding with the popularity of New Wave and post-punk, dark wave added dark, introspective lyrics and an undertone of sorrow for some bands. In the 1980s, a subculture developed alongside dark wave music, whose members were called "wavers" or "dark wavers". The British post-punk groups that inspired Gothic rock provided initial impetus for the movement. As a result, dark wave is linked to the Goth subculture.
Examples: Love Spirals Downwards, Collide, Switchblade Symphony

Electroclash
The term electroclash was coined by new York DJ and promoter Larry Tee to describe music that combined synthpop, techno, punk and performance art. The genre was a reaction to the rigid formulations of techno music, putting an emphasis on song writing, showmanship and a sense of humour, described by The Guardian as one of "the two most significant upheavals in recent dance music history
Examples: Scissor Sisters, ADULT., Fischerspooner, Erol Alkan, Princess Superstar, Mignon, Miss Kittin & The Hacker, Mount Sims, Tiga, Spalding Rockwell

Electropunk
(or Synthpunk) A music genre combining elements of electronic music and punk rock. Synthesizers playing the role of lead and rhythm guitars meant that much of the technique of synthesis relied on making full, harmonic lead timbres, similar to the synthesizer lead roles in some 1970's progressive rock and jazz fusion genres.
Examples: Le Tigre, The Epoxies, Blowoff/Bob Mould, Ima Robot, Full Minute of Mercury

Ethereal Wave
Typical of this kind of music is the use of atmospheric guitar soundscapes, including sound effects like echo and delay. A second typical characteristic is the use of breathy male or high register female vocals – often with hard-to-decipher lyrical content – and a strong influence of ambient music.
Examples: Ataraxia, Autumn, Autumn's Grey Solace, Black Tape for a Blue Girl, Björk

Indietronica
A music genre that combines indie, electronica, rock and pop music. Typical instruments used in indietronica music are electronic keyboard, synthesizer, sampler and drum machine.
Examples: Passion Pit, MGMT, Hot Chip, Gold Panda, Foster the People, Shiny Toy Guns, Delorean, Crystal Castles

New Rave
A term applied to several types of music that fuse elements of electronic music, new wave, rock, indie, techno, bastard pop, breakbeat hardcore and electro house. It is most commonly applied to an arguable British-based music scene between 2005 and late 2008 of fast-paced electronica-influenced indie music that celebrated the late 1980s' Madchester and rave scenes through the use of neon colours and using the term 'raving' to refer to going nightclubbing.
Examples: M.I.A., Hot Chip, The Sunshine Underground

Space Rock
A subgenre of rock music; the term originally referred to a group of early, mostly British, 1970s progressive and psychedelic rock bands such as Hawkwind and Pink Floyd, characterised by slow, lengthy instrumental passages dominated by electric organs, synthesizers, experimental guitar work and science fiction or astronomical lyrical themes, though it was later repurposed to refer to a series of late 1980s British alternative rock bands that drew from earlier influences to create a more melodic but still ambient form of pop music
Examples: 30 Seconds to Mars, Angels and Airwaves, Lumerians, The Secret Machines, The Mars Volta, The Boxing Lesson




Eurodance is nightclub-oriented music that is usually produced somewhere in Europe and sounds commercial enough to be played by radio stations and music television. Some of the more prominent Eurodance songs go international, especially if an act manages to score more than one hit. Most Eurodance is characterized by synthesizer riffs, female or male vocals with simple chorus, male rap parts, sampling and a strong beat. Sometimes with female or male vocals singing throughout the whole song without rap.

Bubblegum Dance
The genre is characterized by cute lyrics and happy sounds. Bubblegum dance usually has a more pop sound than other Eurodance. The lyrics and style are often light-hearted and are not intended to be taken seriously. They are often amusing and cheerful. Bubblegum dance is similar to bubblegum pop music in that they both tend to have fun, childish subjects. The lyrics and style of bubblegum dance music is often silly and should not be taken seriously. Traditionally, bubblegum dance music can be described as cheerful, amusing, silly and childish, with many people leading to the conclusion that the song or artist is aimed at children. However, it is common for artists of this genre to incorporate sexually suggestive lyrics into some of their songs. While sometimes these suggestive lyrics might be very obvious, other times they might go unnoticed.
Examples: Aqua, Bambee, Banaroo, Befour, Caramell, Carlito, Cartoons, Ch!pz,  Crispy, Creamy, Daze

Eurotrance
A term that describes all "trance"-like European imports into the American dance music market, especially those recorded in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium.
Examples: ATB, Blank & Jones, Alice DeeJay, Sash!, Tiësto, Armin Van Buuren, Ferry Corsten, Push, Paul Van Dyk, Above & Beyond, EX-PLOSION, Markus Schulz

Italo Dance
An offshoot of the Eurodance musical genre, which was especially popular in Europe in the late 1990s to the early 2000s. Italo Dance is characterized by synthesizer-riffs, vocals modified with vocoders with catchy and simple chorus and typically a bass with a 'metallic' sound often referred to as "Tuba-Bass". Italo is often very melody-driven and is held together by the chorus and the main-theme (melody), some progressive derivates of italo is just driven by percussions and a male vocal though (see hard dance style).
Examples: Da Blitz, Einstein Dr Deejay, Taleesa, Double You, Co.Ro



An umbrella term that refers to the grouping of modern electronic dance music genres. The term usually includes genres such as UK Hard House, Hard NRG, Hard Trance, Hardcore, and Hardstyle. The BPM for these genres typically ranges from 140-180BPM, and consists of a 4x4 rhythm (specifically four-on-the-floor). It is not uncommon for the term "hard dance" to be associated with other rave music genres such as hardcore techno and Psytrance. This however is a matter of opinion. Hard dance is typically an underground musical movement, one which breaks away from the British cheeseboard of Pop Dance music.

Bouncy House
A rave hardcore dance music subgenre that was developed in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Typical compositions have a tempo of around 150 to 180 BPM (beats per minute), and use a 4/4 signature. Drum instruments are usually kept to a minimum, usually including a bass drum, sharp open hi-hat, hand clap, snare drum, ride and a splash cymbal, generated by drum machines such as TR-909 or DrumStation. Bass drum kicks are sometimes lightly distorted, and are arranged in a strict four-to-the-floor pattern.The style's most distinguishing feature is its off-beat stabs (the "bouncy" part). This is often supplemented with similar off-beat snare patterns, claps, and hi-hats. Despite the genre's name, this part is only briefly heard during most tracks (and may not exist at all). This off-beat note and off-beat drum combination has been said by Simon Reynolds to remind of klezmer or oom-pah music.
Examples: Casio Brothers, Dance Overdose, Davie Forbes, DJ Gizmo, DJ Isaac, DJ Waxweazle, Gordon Tennant, Hyperact, Infernus, Marc Smith

Bouncy Techno
Bouncy techno is characterized by a combination of staccato riffs with off-beat stabs at a fast tempo. It is a lighter and more melodic form of gabber. The genre was popularised by record producer Scott Brown, and soon became prominent in the northern United Kingdom (and, later, the Dutch rave scene). By the mid-1990s, the genre had driven the English happy hardcore breakbeat-influenced style away from its breakbeat hardcore origins, turning it into a happier variant of bouncy techno.
Examples: Gordon Tennant, Hyperact, Infernus, Marc Smith, Neurotek, QFX, Q-Tex, Scott Brown, Technosis

Breakcore
A style of electronic dance music largely influenced by hardcore techno, drum and bass and industrial music that is characterized by its use of heavy kick drums, breaks and a wide palette of sampling sources, played at high tempos. Perhaps the most defining characteristic of breakcore is the drum work which more often than not is based on the manipulation of the Amen break and other classic jungle and hip-hop breaks in high BPM. The techniques applied to achieve this differ from musician to musician, some preferring to cut up and rearrange the breaks, while others merely distort and loop breaks or apply various effects such as delay and chorus to alter the break's timbre. Distorted Roland TR-909 bass drum sounds aren't uncommon either, which has led to breakcore, either mockingly or affectionately, to be referred to as "gabber kicks and Amen breaks". While that formula is prominent in a lot of the music, it is certainly not a necessity, or the end all, be all characteristic of the style.

Darkcore
Darkcore is characterized by layered breakbeats at around 150 to 160 bpm combined with very low frequency bass lines. In addition to these basic traits, dark themed samples such as horror movie theme music or cries for help were commonly included. As the style evolved, the almost gratuitous use of horror elements was dropped as producers relied more on simple effects such as reverb, delay, pitch shifting and time stretching to create a chaotic and sinister mood.
Examples: Hyper-On Experience, International Rude Boyz, Q Project, Top Buzz, DJ Ratty, FBD Project, Fallout, DJ Crystl

Digital Hardcore
Digital hardcore music is typically high-tempo and abrasive, combining the speed, heaviness and attitude of hardcore punk and riot grrrl with electronic music such as hardcore techno, jungle, and industrial rock. Some bands, such as Atari Teenage Riot, incorporate elements of hip-hop music, such as freestyle rap. The use of the electric guitar is retained and it is played in conjunction with samplers, synthesizers and drum machines. While the use of guitar and electronic instruments is a requirement, traditional bass guitars and drum kits are optional. Vocals are more often shouted than sung by more than one member of the group. Typically, the lyrics are highly politicised and espouse left-wing or anarchist ideals.
Examples: Ambassador 21, Left Spine Down, Motormark, Phallus Über Alles, Schizoid, noCore, The Shizit, Rabbit Junk

Doomcore
A type of electronic music typified by the rhythmic use of distorted and atonal industrial-like beats and samples. The tempo of various kinds of hardcore techno ranges from about 95 beats per minute (Belgian "New Beat" and rave/techno), to over 300 bpm ("speedcore"), with the more popular styles ranging from about 150 bpm to 200 bpm.
Examples: Baby D, Bang!, Mark Breeze, Charly Lownoise & Mental Theo, Delta 9, Darren Styles, Dougal

Gabber
Gabber is characterized by its bass drum sound. Essentially, it comes from taking a normal synthesized bass drum and over-driving it heavily. The approximately sinusoidal sample starts to clip into a square wave with a falling pitch. This results in a number of effects: the frequency spectrum spreads out, thus achieving a louder, more aggressive sound. It also changes the amplitude envelope of the sound by increasing the sustain. Due to the distortion, the drum also develops a melodic tone. It is not uncommon for the bass drum pattern to change pitch throughout the song to follow the bass line.
Examples: Hellfish, DJ Producer, Bryan Fury, Deathmachine, Teknoist, Scott Brown

Happy Hardcore
A genre of music typified by a very fast tempo (usually around 160–180 BPM), often coupled with solo vocals and sentimental lyrics. Its characteristically 4/4 beat "happy" sound distinguishes it from most other forms of breakbeat hardcore, which tend to be "darker". It is typically in a major mode, like Ionian or Lydian. In its original incarnation, it was often characterized by piano riffs, synthetic stabs and spacey effects. This genre of music is closely related to the typically Dutch genre of Gabber.
Examples: Scott Brown, Darren Styles, Hixxy, DJ Paul Elstak, Party Animals

Makina
Makina, originated in Spain, similar in sound to UK Hardcore, but with certain elements of Bouncy Techno and Trance music among other differences. Mákina was born in the early 90s in Valencia, Spain. Over the years it has progressed in speed and sound. It is now a worldwide genre of music with many Producers and DJ's. Clubs such as Chocolate, ACTV, Puzzle, Chasis, Pont Aeri, and many more, have played an important part helping Mákina become what it is today.
Examples: Ruboy, Pastis and Buenri, Sistema 3, Gerard Requena

Noisecore
A subgenre of hardcore techno, similar to power noise or breakcore.

Speedcore
Speedcore is a form of hardcore techno that is characterized by a high rate of beats per minute and aggressive themes. The name originates from the high BPM rate, which rarely drops below 300 BPM. Earlier Speedcore tracks averaged at about 250 BPM, whereas more recent tracks sometimes exceed 1000 BPM. Some people classify higher BPM tracks (around 600-800 BPM), as splittercore, and upon reaching 1000 BPM and beyond, the music becomes known as extratone. Whether these terms are necessary or widely used is debatable, partially because of the human ability to perceive differences in BPM at these speeds, not to mention the fact that once the speeds reach 1000-1500 BPM, it just becomes tones, and not beats. Speedcore tracks often contain elements of the related genres gabber and breakcore.
Examples: Refuse Bad Speedcore - Komprex, Speedcore Dandy - M1dy

Splittercore
 Hardcore techno that reaches 300+ BPM

Extratone
 Hardcore techno that reaches 1000+ BPM, known for tones.

Terrorcore
Terrorcore is a faster variant of hardcore techno. It is noticeably different to some other hardcore genres like breakcore, which uses samples of breakbeat, and speedcore, which primarily concentrates on faster Tempo. Terrorcore is a difficult music style to describe because everyone has different interpretations of the music. Most commonly, terrorcore is described as many sounds synthesized to create a 'terror effect' on the music, with regular, and slightly louder sounds. In some genres of dance music, DJs put in sharp terror sounds. Typically reaches 200 BPM.
Examples: Loser

UK Hardcore
UK Hardcore is a broad term to describe the evolved sound of Happy Hardcore Rave music which emerged around the end of the 1990s and grew in strength during the 21st century. The music is typically harder and less break-beat led than happy hardcore back in the 1990's.
Examples: CLSM, Darren Styles, Gammer, Hixxy, Mark Breeze, Re-Con, Scott Brown



House is uptempo music for dancing, although by modern dance-music standards it is mid-tempo, generally ranging between 118 and 135 bpm. Tempos tended to be slower in the early years of house. The common element of house is a prominent kick drum on every beat (also known as a four-on-the-floor beat), usually generated by a drum machine or sampler. The kick drum sound is augmented by various kick fills and extended dropouts. The drum track is filled out with hi-hat cymbal-patterns that nearly always include a hi-hat on quaver off-beats between each kick, and a snare drum or clap sound on beats two and four of every bar. This pattern derives from so-called "four-on-the-floor" dance drumbeats of the 1960s and especially from the 1970s disco drummers. Producers commonly layer sampled drum sounds to achieve a more complex sound, and they tailor the mix for large club sound-systems, de-emphasizing lower mid-range frequencies (where the fundamental frequencies of the human voice and other instruments lie) in favor of bass and hi-hats.

Acid House
A sub-genre of house music that emphasizes a repetitive, hypnotic and trance-like style, often with samples or spoken lines rather than sung lyrics. Acid house's core electronic squelch sounds were developed around the mid-1980s, particularly by DJs from Chicago who experimented with the Roland TB-303 electronic synthesizer-sequencer.

Ambient House
See entry above, under "Ambient"

Chicago House
Chicago house is a style of house music, a genre of electronic dance music which emerged in Chicago in the mid-1980s. Stylistically, Chicago house has no widely accepted definition, but generally includes the first house music productions by Chicago-based artists throughout the 1980s, and any later house music, regardless of geographic origin, which more closely emulates the early Chicago artists' styles more than any others. Chicago house tracks may also be in the acid house, hip house, deep house, or garage house genres.
Examples: Bad Boy Bill, Armando, Ralphi Rosario, Lil Louis, Paris Grey, Steve Hurley, Hot Mix 5, Fast Eddie, Dajae

Complextro
Complextro emerged in late 2010, taking influences from the aforementioned Fidget House. Indeed, many electronic music producers have expressed their opinion that Complextro artists are directly "copying" a sound originally pioneered by Wolfgang Gartner (producers to have stated or implied this include A-Trak and Wolfgang Gartner himself). The Complextro sound features heavy saturated bass sounds akin to Dubstep, combined with often glitchy samples of synthesizers.
Examples: Porter Robinson, Lazy Rich, Zed, Mord Fustang

Deep House
Deep house is a subgenre of house music that fuses elements of Chicago house into the 1980s jazz-funk and touches of soul music. In the early compositions (1988—89), influences of jazz music were most frequently brought out by using more complex chords than simple triads (7ths, 9ths, 13ths, suspensions, alterations) which are held for many bars and give compositions a slightly dissonant feel. Later deep house tracks (1993—94) were also heavily influenced by disco and even merged into a disputable disco house genre. The use of vocals became more common in deep house than in many other forms of house music. Sonic qualities include soulful vocals, slow and concentrated dissonant melodies, smooth, stylish, and chic demeanor. Deep house music rarely reaches a climax, but lingers on as a comfortable relaxing sound, with or without vocals.
Examples: Ben Watt, Blue Six, Booka Shade, Charles Webster, Colette, DJ Spinna, Fish Go Deep, Frankie Knuckles, François Kevorkian, Fred Everything

Diva House
Diva house or Handbag house is an anthemic sub-genre of house music that became most popular in gay clubs during the nineties decade. It is known for booming female vocals, sometimes sampled from other recordings. Such samples come from 1970s soul, disco, gospel recordings and even show tunes sung by people like Bette Midler and other gay icons. The name "handbag house" comes from groups of female club-goers who dance around a pile of their handbags.
Examples: Joi Cardwell, Judy Cheeks, Kathy Brown, Kim English, Kristine W, Kym Mazelle, La Bouche

Dutch House
A Style of House music from the Netherlands. Often referred to as "Dirty Dutch" It has a more harder and elecronic edge, sound & beat. Dutch House is often recognisable by its high pitched lead sounds, tribal drums and minimal structure.
Examples: Quazar, Dano, Afrojack, Eq Lazer, Booming Support, Chuckie (DJ), Speedy Joe, Hardwell, Switch Crookers

Electro House
Electro house is a fusion genre of house music with several other electronic dance music subgenres that came into prominence in the 2000s decade. Stylistically, it combines the minimal-processed four to the floor beats commonly found in tech house with abrasive leads and harmonically rich analogue or digital basslines derived from Hi-NRG and electroclash. The tempo is predominant of house music, meaning that it usually ranges from 125 to 140 BPM.
Examples: Benny Benassi, David Guetta, Bodyrox, Booka Shade

Fidget House
Fidget house (also known as fidget) is a subgenre of Electro house music that is "defined by snatched vocal snippets, pitch-bent dirty basslines and rave-style synth stabs over glitchy 4/4 beats." It is known for using influences from other subgenres such as Chicago house, rave, UK garage, US hip hop, Baltimore club, Kuduro and other "authentic" world music genres.
Examples: Hervé, Sinden, Switch, Crookers, The Bloody Beetroots, Skrillex

French House
The defining characteristics of the sound are heavy reliance on cut-off and phaser effects both on and alongside samples of late 1970s and early 1980s American or European disco tracks. The genre has also been referred to as "neu-disco" (new disco, distinct from the non-house "nu-disco" revival), "French touch", "filter house" and "tekfunk" over the years.
Examples: Daft Punk, Cassius, Etienne de Crécy, Fred Falke, Dimitri from Paris

Freestyle House
Freestyle or Latin Freestyle, sometimes referred to as Latin Hiphop, is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in the early 1980s. Mostly popular during the mid 80s to the early 90s. It continues to be produced today and enjoys some degree of popularity, especially in urban Latino and Italian communities, as it did when it first came on to the scene.
Examples: Stevie B, Shannon, Cynthia, Collage, Johnny O, Safire, George Lamond

Funky House
Funky house is a loose definition for a commercially-oriented, disco influenced subgenre of house music. Like most variants of house, the genre follows a traditional four to the floor house beat, and makes heavy use of synthesizers, samples and soulful vocals, although unlike in more electronically bent Chicago and deep house, presence of acoustic instrumentation is much more common. The genre is commercially popular, with record labels such as Ministry of Sound, Hed Kandi, and Fierce Angel all releasing compilation albums dedicated to the genre
Examples: Freemasons, Soul Central, Armand van Helden, StoneBridge, Seamus Haji, Moto Blanco Mikey High Jink

Ghetto House
Ghetto house, or booty house, is a type of Chicago House which started being recognised in its own right from around 1992 onwards. It features minimal 808 and 909 drum machine-driven tracks, and sometimes sexually explicit lyrics. Using the template of classic Chicago House music (primarily, Percolator by Cajmere), and adding the sexual lyrics perceived by casual fans of Miami Bass, it has usually been made on very minimal equipment with little or no effects. It usually features a "4-to-the-floor" kick drum (full sounding, but not too long or distorted) along with Roland 808 and 909 synthesised tom-tom sounds, minimal use of analogue synths, and short, slightly dirty sounding (both sonically and lyrically) vocals samples, often repeated in various ways. Also common are 808 and 909 clap sounds, and full "rapped" verses and choruses.
Examples: Gant Man, DJ Funk, Dance Mania

Hip House
Hip house, also known as house rap, is a musical genre that mixes elements of house music and hip-hop.
Examples: 2 In A Room, 2 Young Brothers, AB Logic, Beatmasters, B.G., the Prince of Rap, Doug Lazy, Fast Eddie

Italo House
Italo house (often simply referred to as "Italian") is a form of house music popular in Italy, Britain and United States since the late 1980s. It fuses house music and Italo disco. The genre's main musical characteristic is its use of predominantly electronic piano chords in a more lyrical form than classic Chicago House records. The best known example is Black Box's Ride On Time, but the genre became very popular in the late 80s and early 90s for the uplifting and anthemic tunes against the background of indie-dance.
Examples: Jinny, La Bionda, Livin' Joy, Franc'O'Moiraghi, Molella, Alex Natale, Mauro Picotto

Latin House
Latin house is an electronic dance music subgenre that mixes together house and Latin American music, such as that of Brazilian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Cuban, Dominican and Colombian origin.
Examples: 2 In A Room's "Las Mujeres", "Carnival" and "Dar la vuelta", Fun City's "Padentro" and "Baila"

Minimal/Microhouse
Microhouse strips house music down to a more minimal and sparse aesthetic, in the same vein as tech house. Its relationship to house and tech house music can be compared to the relationship between minimal techno and the harder techno genres. Like house and techno, microhouse is built around a 4/4 time signature. A noticeable difference between microhouse and house is the replacement of typical house kick drums, hi-hats and other drum machine samples with clicks, static, glitches, and small bits of noise. Microhouse artists often experiment with different forms of sampling to achieve this effect.
Examples: Deadbeat, Decomposed Subsonic, Dettinger, Dominik Eulberg, Farben, The Field, Gui Boratto, Isolée

Psycho House
Psycho House is an extreme, uptempo subgenre of electro house that contains elements of Fidget House, in that songs are composed of snatched vocal snippets and dirty bass lines. Psycho House is characterized by foggy, distorted bass and heavy snare drums, which are emphasized during the chorus over the kick drum. Tempo for Electro House usually ranges from 125 to 140 BPM. Psycho House is on the top end of the tempo scale at between 136-142 BPM. Psycho House is the heaviest subgenre of House Music.

Swing House/Electroswing
Swing house is a fusion genre of house music and old jazz, swing and ragtime, with samples often played over a "swung note", overimposed on electronic four-to-the-floor beats. Swing house was known back in the 1990s when acid house influenced jazz to form into acid jazz and the like. Samples of 1920s and 1930s jazz compositions were inserted into house as early as 1993, however, due to prominence of progressive movement, the style did not reach mainstream at the time.
Examples: Yolanda Be Cool & DCUP - We No Speak Americano, Gramophonedzie - Why Don't You

Tech House
Tech house is a subgenre of house music that mixes elements of minimal techno into simple, 4-to-4 beats found in soulful deep house. The genre came to prominence in the late-1990s atmosphere of American clubs as soul influenced Detroit-style techno that also borrowed elements from house before reaching Europe. As one reviewer for Amazon.com suggested, this style fuses "steady techno rhythms with the soul and accessibility of house."[1] The term tech house is said to have been coined by Mr C.
Examples: Nigel Richards, Mark Knight, Mr. C

Tribal House
Tribal house is a subgenre of house music similar in structure to deep house, but providing elements of ethnic or indigenous musical percussions (typically conga drums or its synthesized derivative). The genre remains one of the most minimalist in the history of electronic dance music since the appearance of house in the mid-eighties and up to the recent days.
Examples: Danny Tenaglia, Junior Vasquez, Manoo, Peter Rauhofer, Offer Nissim, Steve Lawler, Superchumbo

UK Hard House
UK Hard House or simply Hard House is a style of Hard Dance music that emerged in the 1990s. Proper hard house is typified by a set formula of up-tempo house music compressed kick drums, signature style off-beat basslines and the use of 'hoover' type sounds. In contempt of the name it shares some parts in style with house music, but borrows elements heavily from trance music (synths and sometimes breakdown formula), and hardcore/rave music (hoover sounds, chants). Generally, hard house is part of a wider group of styles called Hard Dance and has little in common with the modern trance or house scenes going for a stronger storm sound. Hard Dance also encompasses NRG or Hard NRG, which UK Hard House is often confused for. However, the two have some variance from each other, and are considered two separate genres by Hard Dance enthusiasts.
Examples: Andy Farley, BK, Paul Glazby, Ian M, Nick Sentience, Peter Wardman

US Garage
Garage house (or also US garage) is a style of music developed in the Paradise Garage nightclub in New York City, USA in the early 1980s.
Examples: François K, Joe Claussell, Joey Negro, Junior Vasquez, Kerri Chandler

Vocal House
Vocal house is a musical genre that came to the fore in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It is often composed of deep soulful vocals (usually sung by female jazz divas) and a piano break, at some stage of the tune. Other samples usually included jazz loops, horns and funk basslines.
Examples: Freemasons, Kaskade, David Morales, Offer Nissim, Yinon Yahel



Industrial music is a style of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes. The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by the band Throbbing Gristle, and the creation of the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". In general, the style is harsh and challenging. Allmusic defines industrial as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music"; "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments (tape music, musique concrète, white noise, synthesizers, sequencers, etc.) and punk provocation."

Aggrotech
Aggrotech (also known as Hellektro, Harsh EBM, or Terror EBM) is a variation of electro-industrial with a strong influence from hardcore techno and the rave scene that first surfaced in the mid 1990s. Aggrotech regularly consists of harsh song structures, aggressive beats, and explicit, pessimistic, militant lyrics. Typically the vocals are distorted and pitch-shifted to sound harsh, and synthetic.
Examples: Hocico, Aghast View, Aesthetic Perfection, Suicide Commando

Coldwave
Coldwave, also written as Cold Wave, is the French variant of Dark Wave, gothic rock and post-punk music, primarily spread in France, South Belgium and Romandy.
Examples: Norma Loy, Pavillon 7B, Résistance, Clair Obscur, Richard Pinhas,

Dark Electro
Dark electro is a similar style, developed in the mid-1990s in central Europe. Compositions included horror soundscapes, and grunts or distorted vocals.
Examples: Ice Ages, The Electric Hellfire Club, Android Lust.

Death Industrial
Death industrial is an industrial sub-genre typified by a dense atmosphere, low-end drones and screamed or distorted vocals. It can be differentiated from power electronics by a slower, more atmospheric sound reminiscent of dark or ritual ambient, and a less abrasive sound.
Examples: The Grey Wolves, Atrax Morgue, Cult of Personality, Genocide Organ

Electronic Body
Electronic body music (EBM) or industrial dance is a music genre that combines elements of industrial music and electronic dance music. From its inception, the style has been characterized by hard and often sparse danceable electronic beats, clear undistorted vocals, shouts or growls with reverberation and echo effects, and repetitive sequencer lines. At the time the genre arose, important synthesizers were the Korg MS-20, Emulator II, Oberheim Matrix and Yamaha DX7. Typical EBM rhythms are based on 4/4 beats, mainly with some minor syncopation to suggest a rock music rhythm structure.
Examples: And One, Armageddon Dildos, Bigod 20, The Neon Judgement

Electro-Industrial
Electro-industrial is a music genre drawing on EBM and industrial music that developed in the mid-1980s. After the EBM movement faded in the early 1990s, electro-industrial increasingly attained popularity in the international club scene. In contrast to the straight EBM style, electro-industrial groups use harsher beats and raspy, distorted, or digitized vocals. In contrast to industrial rock, electro-industrial groups avoid guitars
Examples: Skinny Puppy, Front Line Assembly, Die Form, Klinik

Futurepop
Futurepop is a derivative form of EBM that evolved in the late 90s with VNV Nation and Apoptygma Berzerk. The term "futurepop" was coined by VNV Nation lead singer Ronan Harris to describe their sound at the time, and that of similar groups.
Examples: And One, Assemblage 23, Ayria, Colony 5, Covenant, Icon of Coil, Neuroticfish

Industrial Metal
Industrial metal is a heavy metal musical genre that draws from industrial music and many different types of heavy metal, using repeating metal guitar riffs, sampling, synthesizer or sequencer lines, and distorted vocals.
Examples: White Zombie, Ministry, Godflesh, KMFDM

Industrial Rock
Industrial rock is a musical genre that fuses industrial music and specific rock subgenres. Industrial rock spawned industrial metal, with which it is often confused. Industrial rock artists generally employ the basic rock instrumentation of electric guitars, drums and bass and pair it with white noise blasts and electronic music gear (synthesizers, sequencers, samplers and drum machines). Guitars are commonly heavily distorted or otherwise affected. Bass guitars and drums may be played live, or be replaced by electronic musical instruments or computers in general. Industrial rock frequently incorporates the sounds of machinery and industry.
Examples: Chrome, Killing Joke, Swans, Foetus, Big Black, Celldweller, Blue Stahli, The Birthday Massacre

Neue Deutsche Harte
A genre of industrial metal. It is a crossover style that is influenced by industrial metal, German rock, hard rock, and groove metal/alternative metal combining it with elements from electronic music and techno. NDH imagery is often violent, and sometimes Satanic or militaristic, the latter is especially common among the more industrial-sounding bands. However, lovelorn lyrics are not uncommon and subject matter can be very diverse. It uses the basic setup of instruments for metal, electric guitar, bass guitar, drums and vocals, with keyboard, synthesisers and samples. Emphasis is on a demonstration of predominance, by over-pronouncing certain syllables and letters (such as the uvular trill). The vocals are thus dominantly presenting in deep, male, and clean voice.
Examples: Oomph!, Rammstein, Stahlhammer, Samsas Traum, Megaherz

Noise
Noise music is a term used to describe varieties of avant-garde music and sound art that may use elements such as cacophony, dissonance, atonality, noise, indeterminacy, and repetition in their realization. Noise music can feature distortion, various types of acoustically or electronically generated noise, randomly produced electronic signals, and non-traditional musical instruments. Noise music may also incorporate manipulated recordings, static, hiss and hum, feedback, live machine sounds, custom noise software, circuit bent instruments, and non-musical vocal elements that push noise towards the ecstatic.
Examples: Iannis Xenakis, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Helmut Lachenmann, Cornelius Cardew, Theatre of Eternal Music, Rhys Chatham

Japanoise
Japanoise is a portmanteau of the words "Japanese" and "noise": a term applied to the diverse, prolific, and influential noise music scene of Japan. Japanoise, and particularly harsh noise, as opposed to some other post-industrial related styles, is often much less aggressively "serious" image-based, being focused more on the sole act of "jamming" as hard, loud or ridiculously as possible.
Examples: Incapacitants, Merzbow

Power Noise
Power noise (also known as rhythmic noise, noize and occasionally as distorted beat music) is a fusion genre among noise music and various styles of electronic dance music. It should not be confused with "power electronics", which lacks rhythmic elements and is closer to harsh noise.Typically, power noise is instrumental, based upon a distorted kick drum from a drum machine such as a Roland TR-909, uses militaristic 4/4 beats. Sometimes a melodic component is added, but this is usually secondary to the rhythm. Power noise tracks are typically structured and danceable, but are occasionally abstract.
Examples: Iszoloscope, noCore, Antigen Shift, Prospero

Power Electronics
Power electronics was originally coined by William Bennett as part of the sleevenotes to the Whitehouse album Psychopathia Sexualis, and is related to the early industrial records scene but later became more identified with noise music. It consists of screeching waves of feedback, analogue synthesizers making sub-bass pulses or high frequency squealing sounds, and screamed, distorted, often hateful and offensive lyrics. Deeply atonal, there are no conventional melodies or rhythms.
Examples: Anenzephalia, Atrax Morgue, Aelia Capitolina, Azoikum, Con-Dom, Hieronymus Bosch

Witch House
Witch house (sometimes referred to as drag) is a term used to describe a subgenre of industrial music, which features a prominent hip-hop influence, specifically the 1990s Houston chopped and screwed sound pioneered by DJ Screw. The use of hip-hop drum machines, noise atmospherics, creepy samples, dark synthpop-influenced lead melodies, dense reverb, and heavily altered or distorted vocals are the primary attributes that characterize the genre's sound. Many artists in the genre have released slowed-down remixes of pop and rap songs,or long mixes of different songs that have been slowed down significantly. Common typographical elements in artist and track names include triangles, crosses, and other geometric shapes, which is seen by some as being part of a larger unified aesthetic within the scene as well as a method of keeping it underground and harder to search for on the internet.
Examples: Cocteau Twins, The Cure, Christian Death, Dead Can Dance



Post-disco (club music or dance) is the significant period in popular music history that followed the commercial "death" of disco music that emerged during late 1970s and early 1980s. Unlike disco music, post-disco usually lacks the typical shuffling hi-hat driven beat, walking basslines and/or string orchestration; it more features drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers and 4/4 time. Soulful vocals, however, "stayed" in this new disco music. Post-disco is not underground music at all — Madonna, New Order, Pet Shop Boys have built their careers on new ideas of the disco electronic "reincarnation".

Dance-Pop
Dance-pop is dance-oriented pop music that developed from post-disco, beginning in the early 1980s. Complete with pounding, dance club upbeats and catchy melodies, the songs of this music are fully formed and more influenced by pop song structure than pure dance music. Dance-pop songs are often primarily created by record producers, who then select a singer to perform the song.
Examples: Cher, Britney Spears, Madonna, Paula Abdul, Janet Jackson

Chillwave
Chillwave, sometimes also referred to as Glo-Fi, is a genre of music where artists are often characterized by their heavy use of effects processing, synthesizers, looping, sampling, and heavily filtered vocals with simple melodic lines.
Examples: Washed Out, Neon Indian, Toro Y Moi, Ducktails, Brothertiger, Race of Robots, Casa del Mirto

Rave Breaks
Rave breaks is a genre aiming to incorporate and combine elements of old skool rave music with modern breaks. The music is largely composed of a simple breakbeat, intense bassline sounds, melodic piano lines, staccato synthesizer riffs, and vocals. Tempo ranges between 135-145 BPM.
Examples: Slipmatt, Billy Bunter



Progressive is the umbrella term for a variety of genres that were influenced by the sounds and structures found in Progressive House during the 1990s. Between 1990 to 1992 when the term was coined, Progressive referred to the short-form buzz word for Progressive House.

Progressive Breaks
Progressive breaks essentially grew out of nu skool breaks and progressive house. Due to its origins in those genres, progressive breakbeat typically features atmospheric pads and melodies. Most artists working in this genre also work in other closely related genres such as breakbeats and progressive house. Hybrid is one of the most popular artists in this genre
Examples: Digital Witchcraft, Luke Chable, Momu, Way Out West

Progressive DNB
There are a few forms of drum & bass considered progressive. Neurofunk, a variant of the techstep subgenre, incorporates elements of jazz, funk, and multiple electronic influences, including techno and house. The style also follows the progressive form found in other genres. Drumfunk, a relatively new subgenre, could also be considered progressive. Contemporary atmospheric drum'n'bass and Liquid funk have also been described as progressive.

Progressive House/Trance
Progressive House/Trance (sometimes referred to as Progressive House or Trance) is the main derivative of the Progressive wing. Although no firm classification rules exist, the structure is generally reminiscent of House with notable variations. For example, phrases are usually a power of two number of bars and begin with the introduction of a new or different melody or rhythm. The tempo is a theoretical fusion of both, ranging from approx. 128 to 140 bpm (which is faster than typical earlier house, but slower than the one featured in more recent trance tracks). Such structure is intuitively described as consisting of three major structural elements: (1) build-up; (2) breakdown ; (3) climax. These three structural elements are expressed either temporally or in their intensity, if not both. A 'build-up' sequence can sometimes last up to 3 or even 4 minutes. Subtle incremental/decremental acoustic variations (i.e., gradual addition/subtraction of instruments) anticipate the transition to each subsequent structural element of the track. The initial build-up and the final break-down are generally very similar, adding a feel of symmetry to the general structure of the melody. A Progressive House/Trance track is usually longer than a regular composition House track, ranging in length from 8 to 12 minutes (as opposed to 5—6 of radio format).
Examples: Sasha, Hernan Cattaneo, James Holden, John Digweed, Dave Seaman, Nick Warren, James Zabiela, Eddie Halliwell, Jason Jollins, Max Graham, Danny Howells, Anthony Pappa, Dinka

Jumpstyle
Jumpstyle is a rave dance and electronic music genre mainly practiced in Europe, specifically Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland, Germany and northern France. The music which accompanies Jumpstyle is an offspring of hardstyle, Happy Hardcore and Gabber. Its tempo is usually between 140 and 150 BPM. However, it cannot be seen as merely a slowed down version of gabber. It is characterized by a 909 kick drum used in a four on the floor beat. It also has influences from Hard House. Because of the big hype around the dance and music style itself in 2007 and 2008, it suffers from image-problems especially in the Netherlands. Because of this, the euphoric/melodic Jump like it was made between 2006 and 2008 is not being released anymore these days. However, there are still some radio stations left, broadcasting Jump in its traditional form.
Examples: Scooter, Captain Ahab

Progressive Techno
Progressive techno (short "progtech") is a very limited term for a subgenre of progressive appearing in 1999—00, which consisted of mixing progression into elements of techno, usually resulting in half-dance compositions. Progtech songs tend to feature steadier than regular techno beats (ranging from around 100 to 120 BPM), but usually derive on higher tones where their electronic sound becomes heard. This has a purpose of indicating that the instruments themselves are electronic in nature.
Examples: Moby, The Prodigy



Techno is a form of electronic dance music (EDM) that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built. Music journalists and fans of techno are generally selective in their use of the term; so a clear distinction can be made between sometimes related but often qualitatively different styles, such as tech house and trance. "Techno" is also commonly confused with generalized descriptors, such as electronic music and dance music

Acid Techno
Acid techno is the term used to describe a style of techno that developed out of late 1980s Chicago Acid house. Acid house was essentially house music made with a specific sound, obtained by using very distinctive instruments created mainly by Roland, such as the TB-303 for bass and lead sounds, and the TR-909 and TR-808 for percussion. Acid specifically refers to the use of the Roland TB-303, or any other synthesizer designed to emulate its unique sound
Examples: Martin Damm, Mike Ink, Rob Acid, Brixton, Hardfloor, DJ Darkzone, Jon the Dentist

Detroit Techno
Detroit techno is an early style of electronic music beginning in the 1980s. Detroit, Michigan has been cited as the birthplace of techno music.
Examples: Derrick May, Kevin Saunderson, Chez Damier

Free Tekno
Free tekno is the name given to the music predominantly played at free parties in Europe. The spelling of the word tekno is made to deliberately differentiate the musical style from that of techno. The music is fast, normally 170 to 200 bpm and characterised by a pounding repetitive kick drum. Recently interest in tekno has decreased, as artists begin to explore other genres such as breakcore, speedcore and ,as some would argue, because of an increasing boredom with the 4/4 beat or because artists find these genres more extreme.
Examples: 69db, Ixy, Kaos, Jack Acid, Curley, Les Boucles Etranges, Yale, FKY, Suburbass, Infrabass, Psychospores

Ghettotech
Ghettotech or Detroit club music is a form of electronic dance music originating from Detroit. It combines elements of Chicago's ghetto house with electro, hip hop, techno, and grafts the perceived raunch of Miami Bass as the vocal stamp of the music. It is usually faster than most other dance music genres, at roughly 145 to 170 bpm, and sometimes features pornographic lyrics. Other spellings include Ghetto Tech, GetoTek, Ghettotek, and other names include Detroit Bass (sharing the title with Detroit area Electro), Booty Bass (sharing the title with Miami Bass), and Booty Music (an umbrella term under which the genre falls).
Examples: DJ Assault

Minimal
Minimal techno is a minimalist sub-genre of techno. It is characterized by a stripped-down aesthetic that exploits the use of repetition, and understated development. This style of dance music production generally adheres to the motto less is more; a principle that has been previously utilized, to great effect, in architecture, design, visual art, and Western art music.
Examples: Gui Boratto, Extrawelt, Pantha du Prince, Daniel Bell, Richie Hawtin, Ricardo Villalobos, Luciano, Jeff Mills

Nortec
Nortec (from the combination of "norteño" and "techno") is an electronic musical genre from Tijuana (a border city in Baja California, Mexico) that first gained popularity in 2001. Nortec music is characterized by hard dance beats and samples from traditional forms of Mexican music such as Banda sinaloense and Norteño - unmistakably Mexican horns are often used. These styles are characterized by their use of accordions and double bass (norteño); tubas, clarinets, horns and pumping bass drums (tambora) and quirky use of percussion and polyrhytmic snare drum rolls (both). All of these elements are used to create a sound that is very Tijuana.
Examples: Nortec Collective

Acid Cabaret/Nopal Beat
It specializes in fusion of electronic music with various styles of Latin music. The name comes from the traditional Mexican vegetable nopal (an opuntia cactus, present in the coat of arms of Mexico).
Examples: Sussie 4, Sweet Electra, Double Helix, Galapago, Axkan, Revolver, Luis Flores

Rave Music
The genre "rave", also known as 80s hardcore by ravers, first appeared amongst the Acid House movement in the UK during the mid 1980s as a reaction to New Beat. While New Beat usually borrowed an aggressive industrial sound, rave tended to borrow New Beat's elements that were harder than Acid House, while retaining the neutral mooded sound of Acid House. Rave tended to be a happy genre that favoured synthesised melodies over the duller sound of the TB-303 in order to attract a wider audience. The genre was later reestablished as oldskool hardcore, which lead onto newer forms of rave music such as drum n bass and jazzstep, as well as other hardcore techno genres, such as gabber, hardstyle and happy hardcore.
Related to: Breakbeat, Techno, Dance, and Trance.

Rotterdam Techno
Rotterdam Techno is a genre of hard techno. The genre is mostly only known in Japan, where genres often have different names compared to those of the Western dance music world. Typically, Rotterdam Techno features samples of British rock vocals and harder synths. The genre was born when a DJ overlaid a British rock band's vocals with hard synths that have come to exemplify Rotterdam Techno.
Examples: Double U, King Dale

Paco Paco
Paco Paco is a style of dance that is associated with Rotterdam Techno in Japan, where girls gyrate on each other. This is similar to the style of dance (el pireo) done to Reggaeton style music, but it differs from el pireo as paco paco is only to be done by girls. Paco Paco is only danced to Rotterdam Techno.
Examples: "Utter" by King Dale

Schranz
Schranz is a European hard style of techno music. It is typically played at around 150–170 BPM (beats per minute) but can also be slower. Schranz is based on massive kick drums, driving percussion, and distorted, repetitive synthesizer noises. The original Schranz sound is a harder, uptempo (about 150 BPM) Techno style inspired by Detroit Techno with reduced melodic elements. Schranz often features just single synth stabs or atmospheric sweeps with an emphasis on percussion. A trademark of this style are heavily compressed and filtered loops, combined with Roland 909 kick drums, snares, and high hats.
Examples: Chris Liebing, Adam Beyer, Carl Cox

Symphonic Techno
Symphonic techno (also known as Symphonic acid) represents the integrated, non-genre, and progressive instrumental electronic music that interfuses the different elements of electronic dance music such as techno, ambient, drum’n’bass with progressive rock, neo-classical music using the classical orchestration techniques.In a broad sense, symphonic techno can be interpreted as the music that "combines symphonic rock and techno” that combines together and "synthesizes" many different musical elements using the electronic musical instruments like synthesizer.
Examples: AQi Fzono, Jesper Kyd, Hybrid

Tecno Brega
Tecno brega or technobrega (Cheesy Techno) is a form of music from northern Brazil, particularly Belém. Music of the genre is created primarily through remixing and reworking songs from popular music and music from the eighties. While there is a large amount of famous music used in techno brega, the majority of it is original material comes from other sources.
Examples: Gaby Amarantos

Technopop
See entry 'Electropop,' under 'Electro'

Toytown Techno
A sub-genre of early 1990s techno music, which included records such as "Sesame's Treet", "Charly" and "A Trip to Trumpton".
Examples: "Sesame's Treet", "Charly" and "A Trip to Trumpton"

Yorskhire Techo
See entry 'Yorkshire Bleep and Bass', under 'Chiptune'


A genre of electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s generally characterized by a tempo of between 125 and 150 bpm, repeating melodic synthesizer phrases, and a musical form that builds up and breaks down throughout a track. It is a combination of many forms of music such as techno, house, industrial, new age, pop, chill-out, ambient, electronic art music, classical music, and film music. It is usually more melodic than techno, and the harder styles usually have harder beats than house. The origin of the term is uncertain, with some suggesting that the term is derived from the Klaus Schulze album Trancefer (1981) or the early trance act Dance 2 Trance. Others, though, argue the name may refer to an induced emotional feeling, high, euphoria, chills, or uplifting rush listeners claim to experience. Yet others trace the name to the actual trance-like states that the earliest forms of the music attempted to generate in the 1990s before the genre's focus changed.

Acid Trance
A style of trance music that emerged in the late '80s early '90s focusing on utilising the acid sound. The trademark sound of "acid" is produced with a Roland TB-303 by playing a sequenced melody while altering the instrument's filter cutoff frequency, resonance, envelope modulation, and accent controls. This real-time tone adjustment was not part of the instrument's original intended operation. Acid trance is the best known form of trance music in Belgium. Acid trance may be considered a descendant of acid house, since the genre of trance had not yet been invented during the advent of acid house (or acidhouse).
Examples: Electric Skychurch, Nostrum, Solar Quest, Re-Pitcher, Phobia, Kai Tracid, DJ Choci, The KLF

Dream Trance/House
The key element of dream trance resides in catchy and deep melodies of such tracks, typically played on an analog instrument (piano, violin, saxophone, etc.) that are mastered and then sampled onto electronic beat structure. The melodies are considered "dreamy", i.e. tending to alter the listener's mind, hence the name. Today dream trance is considered to be the first and the most primitive derivative of progressive electronic movement that started around 1992.
Examples: "Children", "Fable", "Fantasya", "One & One" by Robert Miles

Euro-trance
The term Euro-Trance describes all "trance"-like European imports into the American dance music market, especially those recorded in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium.
Related to: Dream House, Progressive Trance, Vocal Trance, Uplifting Trance

Goa Trance
A form of electronic music that originated during the late 1980s in Goa, India. Goa trance was originally referred to as trance dance. The original goal of the music was to assist the dancers in experiencing a collective state of bodily transcendence, similar to that of ancient shamanic dancing rituals, through hypnotic, pulsing melodies and rhythms. As such it has an energetic beat, almost always in common time (4/4) meaning 4 quarter note pulses per bar. Time is marked with kicks (bass drum beats) on each quarter-note pulse, a snare or clap on the second and fourth pulse of the bar, with an open hi-hat sound every second eighth note. A typical track will generally build up to a much more energetic movement in the second half then taper off fairly quickly toward the end. The BPM typically lies in the 130-150 range, although some tracks may have BPMs as low as 110 or as high as 160. Generally 8–12 minutes long, Goa Trance tracks tend to focus on steadily building energy throughout, using changes in percussion patterns and more intricate and layered synth parts as the music progresses in order to build a hypnotic and intense feel.
Examples: Juno Reactor, Eat Static, Astral Projection, Etnica, Oforia, Dimension 5, Doof, Hallucinogen, Infected Mushroom, Plexus, Man With No Name, The Infinity Project

Dark Psytrance
A darker, faster and more distorted form of psychedelic trance music, with tempo ranges usually from 145 to 180 BPM, but reaches +220BPM. "It is in Russia where so called "Dark psy"(experimental genre of psytrance music, which traits include gloomy infernal aestethics in the tradition of Hardcore, high BPM level, dense basslines, lack of melodies, and the introduction of variety of samples from Horror films, screaming, different noises and effects) is getting to the popularity of Full On originating in Russia and Germany, the style has recently expanded to other countries worldwide.
Examples: Infect Insect, Alien Tranciestor, Zero-Blade, Mr. Hades

Full On
Full on is a form of psychedelic trance that originated in Israel during the late 1990s. The expression “full on” is taken from the first out of a seven compilation albums series and the first album ever to be released under Hom-mega Productions in 1998, titled Full On. Full on usually has higher bpm than other psytrance. The most easily recognizable element of full-on psy-trance is the so-called "rolling" bassline, which crams two or three short bass notes in between each hit of the 4/4 drum.
Examples: Sesto Sento, Gataka, 1200 Micrograms, Astrix, 40%, Vibe Tribe

Psychedelic trance
A form of electronic music characterized by hypnotic arrangements of synthetic rhythms and complex layered melodies created by high tempo riffs. It first broke out into the mainstream in 1995 as the UK music press began to report on the trend of Goa trance. Psychedelic trance has a distinctive, speedy sound (generally between 140 and 150 BPM) that tends to be faster than other forms of trance or techno music. Psychedelic trance uses a very distinctive resonated bass beat that pounds constantly throughout the song and overlays the bass with varying rhythms drawn from funk music, techno, Middle Eastern music, and trance using drums and other synthesized instruments. (Also called 'psyprog')
Examples: Similar to Goa Trance examples

Psybreaks
Psybreaks or psychedelic breakbeat is a form of psychedelic trance originating in the late 90s, splicing breakbeat basslines and rhythms into otherwise heavily psytrance-influenced tracks. The psybreaks genre is underrepresented in the larger breakbeat and psytrance communities. More listeners are being connected with the music every day. There is much discussion amongst fans of psybreaks about the specific qualities that define the genre. Many electro tracks are produced with "psy" elements that blur the distinction between pure psybreaks and breaks tracks that have psy samples.
Examples: Drone - Pulsar, Morphonix - Island Sanctuary, and Planewalker - Spellbound

Suomisaundi
"Suomisaundi" literally means "Finnish sound" in Finnish; music that features many of the characteristics of suomisaundi has gained global popularity. Songs frequently include distorted sampling, layers and combinations of effects, tricky drum fills and breaks, as well as speech samples in Finnish or in English. On many occasions there are forms of strange humor and/or self-irony in the music or in the track titles. Some even describe the suomi-style of psytrance as anarchistic and almost punk in the trance music scene, because the songs are usually very different and progressive compared to mainstream European psytrance tracks.
Examples: DDA, Eraser vs Yöjalka, Haltya, James Reipas, Luomuhappo, NBR, Okta

Hard Trance
Hard trance is often characterized by strong, hard (or even downpitch) kicks, fully resonant basses and an increased amount of reverberation applied to the main beat. Melody varies from 130 to 150 in tempo, and can feature plain instrumental sound in early compositions, with the latter ones tending to implement side-chaining techniques of progressive on digital synthesizers.
Examples: Alex Kidd, Axel Coon, Alphazone, Andy Ace, Berserk, Brent Sadowick, Cocooma, Cosmic Gate

Hardstyle
The hardstyle sound typically consists of a hard sounding kick, intense reverse basslines, and detuned and distorted sounds. It bears some similarities to hard trance. Many hardcore artists produce hardstyle tracks as well. Many modern Hardstyle tracks are written in tuplet. Hardstyle often has melodies in triplet form, which gives the genre a pulsating rhythm, whereas other genres such as Jumpstyle have basic melodic structures to them.
Examples: D-Block & S-te-Fan, Coone, Showtek, Technoboy, Wildstylez, The Prophet

Dubstyle
A genre of electronic dance music, based on the fusion of hardstyle and breakbeat. Dubstyle is a combination of 2-step and Hardstyle elements. The breakbeats are composed of Hardstyle kicks, snares, and hi-hats. The main reason for the term 'Dubstyle' being used as a conjunction between the word 'Dubstep' and 'Hardstyle' is because pure Dubstyle features many Dubstep and Breakbeat elements, and so is opposed to being a pure fusion of 2-step and half step rhythms with Hardstyle.
Examples: Headhunterz, Da Tweekaz, Fenix and The Sektorz

Neo-Trance
It is defined by the use of various musical aspects which do not conform or adhere to previous incarnations of trance. Neo-trance music employs deeper and sometimes more meaningful lyrics. Artists involved in the creation of Neo-trance often work with vocalists who’ve previously only recorded outside of the trance vein. The music itself has its roots in minimal and techno music, while generally adding in melodic elements and breakdowns to bring the tracks into the Neo-trance quarter. Minimal techno producers started making melodies (albeit not typical trance strings) and this new branch of minimal techno caught on, and trance, being full of melodies became related to this branch of music. Quite often Neo-Trance has a darker feel to it.
Examples: Boards Of Canada, James Holden, Nathan Fake, Oxia, Gui Boratto, Miss Kittin & The Hacker, Aril Brikha, Max Cooper and Trentemøller

Tech Trance
Tech Trance is a sub-genre within Electronic Dance Music that draws upon the Techno and Trance genres as the name suggests. Tech Trance incorporates traditional elements of Techno, with its repetitive nature and strong 4/4 beat, while deriving the melodic elements from Trance. Tech Trance compositions tend to have a tempo of around 135-150 beats per minute.Tech Trance tends to utilize a more driving sound, while commonly using distortion as an effect on the melodies. Usually, the melody containing strings and pads will begin once the beat has completely stopped, playing by itself much like a Trance breakdown. This melody will suddenly stop, leaving the drums and a completely different synth to begin, whereas Trance songs would generally continue with the same melody. The synths are short, repetitive and contain fewer note changes than Trance, often having the same note played in an interesting sequence.
Examples: Leon Bolier - Ocean Drive Boulevard, Vandall - Viva La Revolution, Marco V - Godd, Signum - First Strike

Uplifting Trance
Often synonymous with epic trance, anthem trance, emotional trance, or euphoric trance is a term used to describe a large sub-genre of trance. The name, which emerged in the wake of progressive trance in 1997, is derived from the feeling which listeners claim to get (often described as a "rush").
Examples: Andy Blueman, Aly & Fila, Sean Tyas, Soundlift, Arctic Moon

Vocal Trance
From 1997-2003, this music style was simply progressive trance with vocals. TMF Belgium/Holland (and JIM Belgium during the 00s) followed the "hype", by promoting their own vocal trance productions, that became more commercially successful in the UK and Spain. UK also has a share of the vocal trance scene, but more at an underground level.
Examples: 4 Strings, ATB, Mic-Chek, Ian Van Dahl, Lasgo, Sylver, Milk Inc, Dj Sammy, Santamaria, Alice Deejay, Fragma, Sash!, Orion Too, Do, Dee Dee, Astroline, Kate Ryan, Kelly Llorenna, Flip & Fill



A genre of electronic dance music originating from the United Kingdom in the early-1990s. UK garage is a descendant of house music which originated in Chicago and New York, United States. UK garage usually features a distinctive syncopated 4/4 percussive rhythm with 'shuffling' hi-hats and beat-skipping kick drums. Garage tracks also commonly feature 'chopped up' and time-shifted or pitch-shifted vocal samples complementing the underlying rhythmic structure. UK garage was largely subsumed into other styles of music and production in the mid-2000s, notably within hip-hop and urban music. It also spawned multiple off-shoots including Grime, UK Funky, Dubstep, and Bassline.

2-Step
A typically English style of modern electronic dance music, and a relatively popular subgenre of UK garageOne of the primary characteristics of the 2-step sound –– the term being coined to describe "a general rubric for all kinds of jittery, irregular rhythms that don't conform to garage's traditional four-on-the-floor pulse" –- is that the rhythm lacks the kick drum pattern found in many other styles of electronic music with a regular four-on-the-floor beat.
Examples: Artful Dodger, Daniel Bedingfield, The Fabulous Baker Boys, Wideboys

4x4/Bassline
A type of music related to UK garage that originated from speed garage, and shares characteristics with fellow subgenres dubstep and grime for their emphasis on bass.
Examples: DJ Q, H Two O, T2, DJ Easy

Breakstep
A type of music that evolved from the UK garage scene music and influenced the emergence of dubstep.
Examples: Toasty Boy, Marlow, Reza, Gunjack

Dubstep
A genre of electronic dance music that originated in south London, England. Its overall sound has been described as "tightly coiled productions with overwhelming bass lines and reverberant drum patterns, clipped samples, and occasional vocals"
Examples: 12th Planet, Skrillex, Skream, Doctor P, Nero, Noisia, Flux Pavilion

Filthstep
An offshoot of dubstep music, in which the focus is on being as loud, heavy, distorted and bassy as possible.
Examples: Downlink, Datsik, Skeptiks

Funky
Funk creates an intense groove by using strong bass guitar riffs and bass lines. Like Motown recordings, funk songs used bass lines as the centerpiece of songs. Slap bass' mixture of thumb-slapped low notes and finger "popped" (or plucked) high notes allowed the bass to have a drum-like rhythmic role, which became a distinctive element of funk. Funk utilized the same extended chords found in bebop jazz, such as minor chords with added sevenths and elevenths, or dominant seventh chords with altered ninths. However, unlike bebop jazz, with its complex, rapid-fire chord changes, funk virtually abandoned chord changes, creating static single chord vamps with little harmonic movement, but with a complex and driving rhythmic feel. Some of the best known and most skilful soloists in funk have jazz backgrounds.
Examples: Herbie Hancock, Afrika Bambaataa, Vaughan Mason & Crew, Midnight Star, Cybotron

Speed Garage
A type of music, associated with UK garage and hard dance scenes. Speed garage has sped-up NY garage 4-to-the-floor rhythms. Snares are placed as over the 2nd and the 4th kickdrums, so in other places of the drum pattern. Speed garage tunes have warp, heavy basslines, influenced by jungle and reggae. Sweeping bass is typical for speed garage. It is typical for speed garage tune to have a breakdown. Speed garage tunes sometimes featured timestretched vocals. As being heavily influenced by jungle, speed garage is full of jungle and dub sound effects, such as gunshot sounds.
Examples: Armand Van Helden